How much did the cost of software maintenance increase between 2000 and 2017?

I’m guessing severalfold cost increase due to security issues. Much higher patch frequency driven by security findings and OS changes.

IT budgets, especially in government, have not kept pace. Internally developed software is no longer cost effective.

Lots of implications we don’t understand yet. Some workflows will need to be simplified or change to fit generic tools … or even revert to pre-software modes.